Liverpool /ˈlɪvərpuːl/ is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, United Kingdom along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880. It is the eighth most populous British city, and sixth most populous in England. In, 2011 the population was 466,400 and Liverpool at the centre of a wider urban area, the Liverpool City Region, which has a population of around 2 million people. Historically, Liverpool was a part of Lancashire. The city's urbanisation and expansion were largely brought about by the city's status as a major port. By the 18th century, trade from the West Indies, Ireland and mainland Europe, coupled with close links with the Atlantic slave trade, furthered the economic expansion of Liverpool.
Early history King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, but by the middle of the 16th century the population was still only around 500. The original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in a H shape: Bank Street (now Water Street), Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street (now High Street), Moor Street (now Tithebarn Street) and Whiteacre Street (now Old Hall Street). In the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. As trade from the West Indies surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, and as the River Dee silted up, Liverpool began to grow. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade helped the town to prosper and rapidly grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. In the early 19th century Liverpool played a major role in the Antarctic sealing industry, in recognition of which Liverpool Beach in the South Shetland Islands is named after the city. By the start of the 19th century, 40% of the world's trade was passing through Liverpool and the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The population continued to rise rapidly, especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. By 1851, approximately 25% of the city's population was Irish-born. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Liverpool was drawing immigrants from across Europe. This is evident from the diverse array of religious buildings located across the city, many of which are still in use today. The Deutsche Kirche Liverpool, Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas, Gustav Adolfus Kyrka, Princes Road Synagogue and St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church were all established in the late 1800s to serve Liverpool's growing German, Greek, Nordic, Jewish and Polish communities respectively. Also there was known to be vampires living in the residents mist and residents became startled of the legend that was KunKin the king of all vampire that was flying around for all the residents knew he could of been walking around in the morning but there legend soon wore off and never heard of again.